### Proportions of the Body

### Scale

Scale is the mathematical relationship that exists between the actual dimensions of your model and those of your sculpture / painting / drawing, which represents it.

The scale is defined by two numbers that determine a ratio between the drawing and reality.

The first number (numerator) of the proportion refers to the drawing.

The second number (denominator) of the proportion refers to reality.

SCALE = DRAWING / REALITY; that is, if my scale is E = 1/4, we will interpret that one centimeter of my figure is equivalent to four centimeters of reality.

__TYPES OF SCALES__

Scale is a graphical method that allows us to draw any object larger or smaller than it really is.

There are the following types of scale:

**Reduction scale:** The drawing / sculpture is smaller than reality. It will be necessary when we want to draw or design large objects, such as roads, buildings, stadiums, ships, etc. Can you imagine working with a map the size of a shopping center? On **reduction scales, the first number is less than the second** . Therefore, the scales will take the following possible forms: 1: 2, 1: 3, 2: 3, 1:10, 1: 200, etc.

**Scales of enlargement:** The drawing / sculpture is bigger than reality. We will use them when the object is so small that we need to see it larger in order to understand it. For example, it is used in the design of watches, electronic devices, mechanisms, etc. On magnification scales, the first number is greater than the second. They will look like this: 2: 1, 5: 1, 4: 3, 10: 3.

**Real scales:** It is represented as 1: 1, that is, our model measures exactly what is represented.

**PRACTICAL EXAMPLE**

Imagine that you want to paint a **60cm** human figure on canvas, at what scale would your sculpture be?

The first thing is to know how much a human actually measures and the "ideal standard" measurement for a human is **180cm** , this is very important, you always have to know the actual measurement of the figure you are modeling in order to calculate the scale.

Now you just have to divide the real measurement by the measurement of your sculpture, which is 60cm 180/60

**= 3** So you can say that your sculpture would be at **1: 3 scale**

**Examples of scales in the human figure that are usually used (ideal standard of 180 cm):**

**Scale 1: 1 = 180cm: 1 = 180cm, your painting would be life size.**

**Scale 1: 2 = 180cm: 2 = 90cm**

**Scale 1: 3 = 180cm: 3 = 60cm**

**Scale 1: 5 = 180cm: 5 = 36cm**

**Scale 1: 6 = 180cm: 6 = 30cm**

Well now it's time to calculate all the averages of your canvas of 60 cm or 1: 3 scale and for that we have the canon of 8 heads, essential to work the human figure.

The first and main point is to know **the head size for your 60cm painting figure**

Now, let's go step by step:

**1º Calculate head size: 60cm: 8 = 7.5 cm**

**2º The shoulders measure 2 heads: 7.5 cm x 2 = 15 cm**

**3º The hips measure 1 and ½ heads: 7.5mx 1.5 = 11.25cm**

**4º The legs measure and feet measure 4 and ½ heads: 7.5cm x 4.5 = 33.75cm**

**5th Arms measure and hands measure 3 heads: 7.5cm x 3 = 22.5cm**