The basic material for learning sketching is the dark shade pencil either 6B or 8B whichever is available and a sketch book. We usually avoid rubbing or use of rubber as much as possible and try to bring out shades with use of pencil only. There are many brands available in India with both 6B and 8B easily available (Faber-Castell, Camlin). No need to go for very costly pencils or import brands.
Sketch a lot! Don't think about the result, just let your hand practice its natural movement. The only advise I can give for good sketching is practice, practice and practice.
The basic steps and lessons of the sketching may not seem interesting or may be boring, but they are the ones that make you perfect for further difficult tasks of sketching and drawing. These basic steps have to be mastered and then only you should move ahead.
The basic of pencils
The pencils are available in varying shades of hardness and softness, ranging from 6H to 9B, where H stands for hardness and B stands for black or softness of the pencils.
Sizes of papers
The A0 size print measures 84.1 x 118.9cm, 33.11 x 46.81 inches.
The A1 size print measures 59.4 x 84.1cm, 23.39 x 33.11 inches.
The A2 size print measures 42.0 x 59.4cm, 16.53 x 23.39 inches.
The A3 size print measures 29.7 x 42.0cm, 11.69 x 16.53 inches.
The A4 size print measures 21.0 x 29.7cm, 8.27 x 11.69 inches.
Lesson 1 - Box shading
Use a ruler and draw 1.5cm x 5 cm boxes and start shading them from very light to darkest possible in steps as shown below in the figure, this is from the learner's sketch book
Lesson 2 - shade Mixing
Lesson 3 - Graphs
Lesson 4 - Stick drawing
Scale is the mathematical relationship that exists between the actual dimensions of your model and those of your sculpture / painting / drawing, which represents it.
The scale is defined by two numbers that determine a ratio between the drawing and reality.
The first number (numerator) of the proportion refers to the drawing.
The second number (denominator) of the proportion refers to reality.
SCALE = DRAWING / REALITY; that is, if my scale is E = 1/4, we will interpret that one centimeter of my figure is equivalent to four centimeters of reality.
TYPES OF SCALES
Scale is a graphical method that allows us to draw any object larger or smaller than it really is.
There are the following types of scale:
Reduction scale: The drawing / sculpture is smaller than reality. It will be necessary when we want to draw or design large objects, such as roads, buildings, stadiums, ships, etc. Can you imagine working with a map the size of a shopping center? On reduction scales, the first number is less than the second . Therefore, the scales will take the following possible forms: 1: 2, 1: 3, 2: 3, 1:10, 1: 200, etc.
Scales of enlargement: The drawing / sculpture is bigger than reality. We will use them when the object is so small that we need to see it larger in order to understand it. For example, it is used in the design of watches, electronic devices, mechanisms, etc. On magnification scales, the first number is greater than the second. They will look like this: 2: 1, 5: 1, 4: 3, 10: 3.
Real scales: It is represented as 1: 1, that is, our model measures exactly what is represented.
Imagine that you want to paint a 60cm human figure on canvas, at what scale would your sculpture be?
The first thing is to know how much a human actually measures and the "ideal standard" measurement for a human is 180cm , this is very important, you always have to know the actual measurement of the figure you are modeling in order to calculate the scale.
Now you just have to divide the real measurement by the measurement of your sculpture, which is 60cm 180/60
= 3 So you can say that your sculpture would be at 1: 3 scale
Examples of scales in the human figure that are usually used (ideal standard of 180 cm):
Scale 1: 1 = 180cm: 1 = 180cm, your painting would be life size.
Scale 1: 2 = 180cm: 2 = 90cm
Scale 1: 3 = 180cm: 3 = 60cm
Scale 1: 5 = 180cm: 5 = 36cm
Scale 1: 6 = 180cm: 6 = 30cm
Well now it's time to calculate all the averages of your canvas of 60 cm or 1: 3 scale and for that we have the canon of 8 heads, essential to work the human figure.
The first and main point is to know the head size for your 60cm painting figure
Now, let's go step by step:
1º Calculate head size: 60cm: 8 = 7.5 cm
2º The shoulders measure 2 heads: 7.5 cm x 2 = 15 cm
3º The hips measure 1 and ½ heads: 7.5mx 1.5 = 11.25cm
4º The legs measure and feet measure 4 and ½ heads: 7.5cm x 4.5 = 33.75cm
5th Arms measure and hands measure 3 heads: 7.5cm x 3 = 22.5cm